Environment & Ecology
Constructed Wetland at Rajokri | Ankit Srivastava
LA 61
Various technical aspects of the constructed wetlands and their importance in restoring health of our water resources are some the aspects that are discussed in the article.
Constructed wetland is a sequential engineering system of a set of chambers like settling pond, bio-digestor and gravel trough enabled by various chemical and biological processes to mimic working of a natural wetland. They perform the same function as a sewage treatment plant, however, there are no mechanical or energy requirements. Aquatic plants, algae and other microbes, rooted in the submerged layer of gravel and sand are active components of various biological processes. Installed in the intermediate space between the sewage source and the draining area, it is used to treat extremely polluted water and untreated raw sewage with high values of BOD [Biochemical Oxygen Demand], before letting it go in a lake. This is achieved by a system of many chemical and biological processes that take place in the engineering system.

These wetlands are built with impermeable base of concrete/ pond liner/ boulder bed that does not allow any water percolation. While the shallow ponds may be lined by an impermeable layer while the deep ones may have concrete base. The section of ponds with concrete base can be designed with dividers in such a way that there is slow, but more movement and flow of water throughout the media. This is not possible in lined ponds. The design of a system of constructed wetlands evolves as per distinct site conditions, especially the nature of pollutants and their quantity. At times, this system may also need combination of processes of different nature. For example, to address high phosphate levels of pollutants which is present only in soil and water and doesn’t circulate through aerial process, both aerobic and anaerobic zones in the main gravel trough are needed.



 


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